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Last Updated December 10, 2003

Disk Management
  Where to Start
  Defragmentation
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Dynamic Disks in Windows 2000 

In Windows 2000, a dynamic disk is a physical disk that doesn't use partitions or logical drives. Instead, it contains only dynamic volumes that you create in the Disk Management console. This allows you to create fault-tolerant volumes such as striped, mirrored, and RAID-5 volumes. You can also extend volumes and make changes to the disk without rebooting the computer. 

Where to Start...

Basic and Dynamic Disks
However, Win2K supports two new disk configuration types©basic disk and dynamic disk?which you must understand to effectively configure and troubleshoot Win2K disk storage. Dynamic Disk A Win2K dynamic disk is a physical disk that doesn't use partitions or logical drives. Upgrading to Dynamic Disk You use Win2K's Disk Management to upgrade a basic disk to a dynamic disk. Source: Windows & .NET Magazine (April 24, 2000)

Best Practices for Using Dynamic Disks on Windows 2000-Based Computers 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article 329707 - This article describes the best practices for using dynamic disks on Windows 2000-based computers. 

Choosing Basic vs. Dynamic Disk Storage for Windows Servers
Learn the differences between basic and dynamic disk storage and how your decision will affect your servers. Source: Windows & .NET Magazine (Dec 2002)

Configuring Dynamic Volumes
Sample Chapter 10 from Windows 2000 Hardware and Disk Management, published by Prentice Hall, PTR Once you upgrade your basic disk to a dynamic disk, you can then begin to configure volumes for the disk as desired. Remember that dynamic volumes replace partitions and extended partitions on basic disks. A volume, though a part of a physical hard disk, appears and acts as though it is an independent hard disk. This chapter shows you how to configure and manage dynamic volumes on your Windows 2000 computer.

Description of Disk Groups in Windows 2000 Disk Management
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 222189 - This article describes Dynamic Disks and Disk Groups in Windows 2000. 

Discover Dynamic Disks
Learn about Win2K's new data-storage feature, the difference between dynamic and basic disks, and how dynamic disks improve storage management in Win2K. Source: Windows & .NET Magazine (June 2000)

Dynamic Disk Hardware Limitations 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 254105 - This article lists the hardware that does not support dynamic disks. 

Dynamic vs. Basic Storage in Windows 2000
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 175761 A new storage type has been defined with the introduction of Windows 2000, and exposed in the new Logical Disk Management snap-in; previous versions of Windows NT used only basic storage.

HOW TO: Set Up Fault-Tolerant Sets on Dynamic Disks
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 298155 - Windows 2000 supports two types of fault-tolerant volumes: mirrored volumes and RAID-5 volumes. This article describes how to set up fault-tolerant sets on dynamic disks in Windows 2000. This article includes basic procedures and a checklist for creating and modifying a fault-tolerant set. A fault-tolerant set includes a stripe set, a stripe set with parity, a volume set, and a disk mirror/duplex. 

 Articles worth reading...

Dynamic Disk Numbering and the DmDiag.exe Tool
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 222470 - Windows 2000 contains a fault-tolerant disk component named dynamic disks that is different then the fault-tolerant disk component in earlier versions of Microsoft Windows NT. You may administer dynamic disks by using the Disk Management snap in 

How to Recover an Accidentally Deleted NTFS or FAT32 Dynamic Volume
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 245725 - If a Windows 2000 NTFS or FAT32 dynamic volume is accidentally deleted by using the Disk Management snap-in, you may be able to recover the volume and the data contained on it. You can do this only if a new volume has not been created and formatted in its place. 

HOW TO: Regenerate a Dynamic Mirrored Volume in Windows 2000 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 313061 - This article is a step-by-step guide to regenerating a mirrored volume on a Windows 2000-based computer after you replace a failed hard disk. 

HOW TO: Set Up Fault-Tolerant Sets on Dynamic Disks in Windows 2000
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 298155 - Windows 2000 supports two types of fault-tolerant volumes: mirrored volumes and RAID-5 volumes. This article describes how to set up fault-tolerant sets on dynamic disks in Windows 2000. This article includes basic procedures and a checklist for creating and modifying a fault-tolerant set. A fault-tolerant set includes a stripe set, a stripe set with parity, a volume set, and a disk mirror/duplex.

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Moving Windows NT Basic Disk FT Sets to a Windows 2000 Computer 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 253110 - When you upgrade a computer from Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 to Windows 2000 and that computer contains fault tolerant Disk sets (FT sets - Stripe Sets with Parity, Stripe Sets, Volume Sets and Mirrors), Setup automatically migrates the FT set and allows immediate access after Windows 2000 Setup is complete. 

Limits of Dynamic Disks in Windows 2000
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 325722 -
This article describes limits of dynamic disks in Windows 2000. 

Restrictions on Extending or Spanning Simple Volumes on Dynamic Disks 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 225551 - Simple volumes on dynamic disks can be extended on the same disk or set to span other disks, without restarting the computer, when more disk space is required. You can extend a simple volume only if the file system is NTFS. 

Upgrading the System or Boot Drive to Dynamic (Rooting)
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 222188 - When you upgrade disks in Windows 2000 from basic to dynamic, all partition information is moved into a private database at the end of the disk. Only one partition table entry of type 0x42 is entered in the Master Boot Record (MBR) at sector

Upgrading Storage Device Drivers That Handle Dynamic Disks
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 254300 - This article discusses upgrading a storage device driver that points to dynamic disks. 


Upgrading the System or Boot Drive to Dynamic (Rooting)
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 222188 - When you upgrade disks in Windows 2000 from basic to dynamic, all partition information is moved into a private database at the end of the disk. Only one partition table entry of type 0x42 is entered in the Master Boot Record (MBR) at sector 0. The process is different for disks containing the system or boot partition. The process with these disks is called "rooting." All entries in the partition table are kept intact, but the Filesystem ID fields are changed to 0x42 to verify that they are dynamic volumes. This is done so that the BIOS can load the kernel and other files necessary to start the Disk Management driver files to read the dynamic volumes. If there is any unallocated space on the volume, an entry is added similar to those of other dynamic volumes (not rooted) that encompasses the rest of the space 

Troubleshooting: Known Bugs and Issues
Cannot Install Windows 2000 on a Non-System or Boot Dynamic Volume
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 216341 - When you install Windows 2000 on a dynamic volume, you can install only on a dynamic volume that is a boot or system volume. Microsoft Windows NT 4.0 and earlier versions do not support dynamic volumes with third-party software, so this is

Cannot Remove False System Partition Using Disk Management
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 245799 - When you view partitions in the Disk Management tool, 2 separate volumes (such as drive C and D) may be listed as the "system" partition. Your original dynamic system disk may be listed as "Missing" - "Offline", and you may be unable to del

Cannot Revert Boot Drive from Dynamic Disk to Basic Disk
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 217226 - When you try to use the Windows 2000 Disk Management snap-in in Microsoft Management Console (MMC) to revert your boot disk from a dynamic disk to a basic disk, the "Revert to basic disk" command is unavailable.

Cannot Upgrade Basic Disk Containing a Single EISA Partition to Dynamic Disk
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 259075 - When you use the Windows 2000 Disk Management snap-in to upgrade a basic disk that contains a single Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) partition to dynamic disk, the conversion appears to work but the EISA partition disappears 

Cannot Upgrade Non-Shared Hard Disks on Cluster Server
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 242434 - On a Windows 2000 Advanced or Datacenter Server with the Cluster service installed, you cannot upgrade shared disks to dynamic disks. The option is not available. You may also experience this behavior if you have a third or fourth SCSI bus 

Dynamic Disks Are Offline If Controller Driver Is Not Started at Boot 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 244550 - If the driver for the second mass storage controller is not set to start at boot, the devices connected to that controller may not be available for use after Windows 2000 has started. The disks may appear in the Disk Management snap-in as "

Dynamic Disk Configuration Unavailable for Server Cluster Disk Resources 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 237853 - After you configure a disk that is recognized by Windows 2000 to be a server cluster disk resource, the option to convert the disk from basic to dynamic is unavailable in Disk Manager. 

Dynamic Volumes Are Not Displayed Accurately in Text-Mode Setup or Recovery Console
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 227364 - While you are using the Recovery console to repair an unbootable Windows 2000 system, or during the text-mode portion of Windows 2000 Setup, dynamic disks may not display accurate information about the correct sizes or the complete list of volumes contained on the dynamic disk(s). There is also no visible designation as to whether a disk is a basic or dynamic disk. 

Error Message "Cannot Proceed with the Upgrade" When a Basic Disk Is Converted to Dynamic 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 267146 - When you use Microsoft Windows 2000 Disk Management to upgrade a basic disk to dynamic, the disk conversion process may stop and you may receive the following error message: 

"Internal Error - Disk Group Exists and Is Imported" Error Message While Importing Foreign Disk
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 260113 - When you use Windows 2000 Disk Management to import dynamic disks that are displayed as foreign disks, you may receive the following error message: 

Laptop May Incorrectly Have Option to Upgrade Basic Disks to Dynamic
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 234308 - The option to upgrade Basic disks to Dynamic should not be available on laptop computers. However, the option may be available on some laptop computer models. 

Logical Disk Names Are Displayed in System Monitor Instead of Drive Letters 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 274311 - After you convert a hard disk from Basic to Dynamic, the volumes on that hard disk are not identified by their drive letter in System Monitor. 

Member of Dynamic Volume Split into 2 or More Regions on a Disk
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 235561 - When you create or view the layout of any of the following volume types, one of the members may be split into 2 separate regions of a disk: 

Memory.dmp File Is Missing or Contains Corrupted Data
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 257299 - If the system partition is built with the dynamic mirrored volume, the Memory.dmp file may not be generated or may contain corrupted data. 

Moving Dynamic Disks Between Computers May Cause Data Loss
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 266177 - If a dynamic disk, such as one with a globally unique identifier (GUID) partition table, contains volumes that use other disks (spanned, stripped, mirrored, or RAID-5 volumes), the other disks in the group (non-GUID partition table disks that were brought along with the GUID partition table disk) may be reconfigured if you move the drives between computers 

Multiple Free Space Regions May Appear on Dynamic Disks 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 241389 - Windows 2000 supports two types of disks: basic disks and dynamic disks. 

Not Enough Space Available to Upgrade to a Dynamic Disk
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 197738 - When you try to upgrade a basic disk to a dynamic disk in Windows 2000, you may receive an error message that says your disk does not have enough free space for the upgrade. 

Option to Upgrade Basic Disk to Dynamic on Laptop Not Available
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 232463 - When you try to use the Windows 2000 Disk Management (Diskmgmt.msc) console to upgrade your laptop or portable computer from a basic disk to a dynamic disk, you are unable to do so.

Problems Managing EISA Partition on Dynamic Disks
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 242168 - After you upgrade a basic disk containing an Extended Industry Standard Architecture (EISA) partition to a dynamic disk, the partition is not displayed in the proper location and cannot be managed in the Disk Management snap-in (LDM) in Microsoft Management Console (MMC). 

Setup Cannot Continue After Reformatting Dynamic System/Boot Partition
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 246119 - After you reformat the system/boot partition on a dynamic disk during Text-mode Setup and the file-copy portion of Setup finishes, you may experience any of the following symptoms when Setup reboots the computer to start GUI-mode Setup: 

Setup Reserves Disk Space for Upgrading to Dynamic Disk
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 225822 - During Setup, if you choose to create a partition that uses the remaining space on a disk, you cannot use the maximum space available on the disk. 

"Stop 0x0000007B" Error Message Is Generated While Converting Basic Disk to Dynamic
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 280724 - After you choose to convert the basic disk that contains your Windows 2000 boot partition to dynamic, you receive the following error message during the required reboot: STOP 0x0000007B Inaccessible boot device. If more than two partitions were on the drive, rebooting the system may allow you to get past this error, but Disk Management may now report the disk as "Dynamic Unreadable". 

System or Boot Disk Listed as Dynamic Unreadable in Disk Management
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 236086 - When you view your system disk or boot disk in the Disk Management tool, it may be listed as "dynamic unreadable", and you may be unable to use the Disk Management tool to manage this disk. Note that this behavior may occur even though the...

Unable to Update to Dynamic Disk by Using HPT 366 Ultra66 IDE Controller
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 260855 - When you try to upgrade to a dynamic disk you may receive the following error message and the upgrade procedure may stop responding (hang) 

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