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Last Updated December 16, 2003

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Quality of Service (QoS)

As corporate networks have grown, the amount of data being transmitted has exploded and stretched the limits of our infrastructure. Upgrading the hardware is expensive and time consuming, so a different software approach is being used. QoS offers a way for networks to give priority to certain data, users, or applications so that mission critical functions get the bandwidth they need.
Where to Start....
An Overview of QoS
Microsoft White Paper reviews emerging QoS mechanisms and how they are integrated to optimize the utilization of network resources. It then specifically discusses Microsoft's QoS mechanisms. 

A Short Overview of QoS Mechanisms and Their Interoperation
During the past several years, numerous mechanisms have surfaced for providing quality of service (QoS) networks. The ultimate goal of these mechanisms is to provide improved network "service" to the applications at the edges of the network. In this white paper, we briefly discuss the benefits of QoS in general. We then discuss available QoS mechanisms and how they interoperate.

Build a Better Network with QoS
For example, when application data enters a traditional network, the network allocates as much bandwidth as the application needs©until the network runs out of bandwidth. In a QoS-enabled network, you can prioritize network traffic flow, allocate network bandwidth and resources to different applications and users, enforce security to applications and users entering your network, and link business needs with desired network behavior. Source: Windows 2000 Magazine (Nov 1998)

Description of Subnet Bandwidth Manager (SBM) in Windows 2000 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article - Q228830 - Quality of Service (QoS) Subnet Bandwidth Manager (SBM) is a signaling technique used to manage network resources (bandwidth) on legacy and newer local area network (LAN) topologies. SBM manages network resources and uses Admission Control Services (ACS) to make traffic-flow decisions.

QOS for the Integrator and Administrator  
Sample Chapter 10 from Windows 2000 Quality of Service, published by New Riders Publishing. If your client has considered deploying QOS in one of its environments, and the consideration ended with a nod of approval and the award (to you) of an implementation contract, welcome©you're the integrator. If you are responsible for ensuring that the ongoing operation of your QOS-enabled network (or its QOS-enabled parts) continues smoothly, welcome©you're the QOS administrator. If you fall somewhere between those two, or if you just want to find out what's involved in getting Windows 2000 QOS running in a network environment, this chapter is where you'll find much of the Windows 2000-specific information you need.

Quality of Service Overview 
Microsoft Online Support site WebCast Quality of Service (QoS) is a specification that warrants special treatment from the underlying network to deliver predefined characteristics, which could include bandwidth guarantees, latency requirements, and packet prioritization. Technologies discussed in this presentation include signaling methods, such as 802.1p, Admission Control Services, and Subnet Bandwidth Manager 

Quality of Service Setup and Configuration 
Microsoft Online Support site WebCast This presentation describes how to set up Microsoft Quality of Service (QoS), including setting up QoS subnets, QoS policies, QoS hardware compliance, QoS logging, and additional advanced configurations.

The MS QoS Components
Microsoft is committed to enabling broad deployment of QoS-enabled networks by providing an extensive suite of QoS components. These include QoS-aware applications, QoS functionality in host operating systems, and network-based QoS components. Microsoft's QoS components are the topic of this part of the white paper.

Windows Quality of Service Technology
The Microsoft© Windows? operating system Quality of Service (QoS) technology allows network managers to deploy QoS applications across IP and other networks. 

Articles, Whitepapers, and Online Courses
Admission Control Service Requires Manual Creation and Configuration of Service Account 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 216781 - The quality of service (QoS) Admission Control service (ACS) requires a service account. This account is not automatically created during the installation of ACS and must be created and configured manually.

Application and Sub-application IDs for Windows 2000 Network Quality of Service
This paper contains a list of known application and sub-application IDs carrying network application policy information.

Debugging the QoS Service Provider 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 244678 - You can generate diagnostic information by using the logging feature available for the Quality of Service (QoS) service provider. 

Description of 802.1P Signaling 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 222020 - The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE) 802.1P signaling method is used for traffic prioritization at OSI Reference Model Layer 2. It is implemented in network adapters and switches for best-effort Quality of Service 

Description of the DSBM Election Algorithm 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 247101 - The protocol for electing and discovering Designated Subnet Bandwidth Manager (DSBM) is named the DSBM election Protocol. To allow for a timely recovery from a DSBM failure, it may be useful to have additional Subnet Bandwidth Managers activate on the segment for fault tolerant purposes. After a DSBM is recognized, the remaining Subnet Bandwidth Managers remain passive on the network only until it is necessary to start an election. 

Description of the Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 227261 - Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) is a signaling technique used to guarantee quality of service (QoS) by reserving bandwidth for RSVP-capable data flows. All nodes in the data path must be RSVP compliant for a guaranteed QoS. 

Description of Reservation State in RSVP
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 244910 - This article describes how the Quality of Service (QoS) Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) manages the path state in nodes along a data path. This is accomplished by periodically using PATH and RESV refresh messages to maintain the path/reservation state for a data flow. The absence of these refresh messages results in the deletion of the state. 

Description of Subnet Bandwidth Manager (SBM) in Windows 2000 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 228830 - Quality of Service (QoS) Subnet Bandwidth Manager (SBM) is a signaling technique used to manage network resources (bandwidth) on legacy and newer local area network (LAN) topologies. SBM manages network resources and uses Admission Control.

How to Configure QoS Logging 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 232058 - In Windows 2000 Quality of Service (QoS), you can use RSVP message logging to verify that RSVP messages are being sent and received. Enabling account logging causes new log entries to be created whenever a client requests bandwidth.

How to Find QoS Templates 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 247111 - This article describes how to find QoS templates. 

Information About Designated Subnet Bandwidth Manager Advertisements and Parameters 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 247102 - This article provides information about Designated Subnet Bandwidth Manager (DSBM) advertisements and parameters. 

QoS Queuing Techniques 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 233039 - Included in the Quality of Service (QoS) Internetwork architecture is a discipline sometimes called Queue Management. Queuing is a technique used in internetwork devices such as routers or switches during periods of congestion. 

QoS Traffic Control in Windows 2000 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 233203 - Traffic control services in Windows 2000 are used to manage traffic flow for QoS-aware and non QoS-aware programs. For programs that are not QoS-aware, traffic that they generate uses the traffic control API (TCI). This traffic is considered best effort and is sent to the TCP/IP stack. Traffic that is generated from a QoS-aware program uses the GQoS (Generic QoS API), with the intent of setting up a bandwidth reservation. When this QoS-aware traffic reaches TCI, TCI carries out the traffic control already implemented in the (RSVP) packet.  

Quality of Service ACS Policies 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 232641 - Windows 2000 Quality of Service (QoS) includes enterprise and subnet policies that contain rules for your enterprise. If you do not want to use the default enterprise policy, you can use a specific enterprise policy. 

Quality of Service ACS/RSVP Performance Counters 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 250883 - This article describes issues related to the Microsoft Windows 2000 Quality of Service (QoS) implementation. 

Reservation Styles in Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 247112 - Resource Reservation Protocol (RSVP) uses filter styles in defining how Quality of Service (QoS) traffic is treated on QoS devices throughout the network. The filter styles are: Fixed, Wildcard, and Shared Explicit. 

Traffic That Can--and Cannot--Be Secured by IPSec 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 253169 - IP Security Protocol (IPSec) in Windows 2000 is designed to secure IP traffic between two computers that communicate by using their IP addresses. It uses filters defined in an IPSec policy to classify IP packets. 

Traffic Prioritization Using IP Precedence 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 222102 - This article describes prioritization of network traffic using IP precedence. 

Known Bugs and Issues

Cannot Delete Subnets from Quality of Service Manager 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 216294 - In the Quality of Service manager, you can add subnets in order to apply policies. However, if you right-click a subnet and then click Delete, you delete only the policies associated with the subnet. You cannot delete the subnet itself.

Error Message Creating Managed Subnet
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 247114 - When you try to create a managed subnet through the Quality of Service (QoS) Admission Control snap-in, you are prompted to enter the IP address of the subnet you want to add. If you do this incorrectly, you may receive the following ACS error message: Invalid name: Subnet names must take the form WWW.XXX.YYY.ZZZ/MM, where MM is the number of unmasked bits at the front. The masked bits at the end must all be clear. Example:  

QoS Program Causes 100 Percent CPU Usage
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 263207 - A program that uses Quality of Service (QoS) sockets may consume 100 percent of the CPU resources for a period of time. 

Windows 2000 QoS Packet Scheduler Service Does Not Filter/Flow Forwarded Traffic 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 270921 - The Windows 2000 Quality of Service (QoS) Packet Scheduler service does not classify forwarded IP packets to a traffic control flow. QoS filter and flow cannot be applied to a connection that is being routed through Windows 2000. This prevents a program (such as Microsoft Proxy Server) from controlling IP traffic when it is using the routing services of Windows 2000 with the QoS Packet Scheduler service. 

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