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Last Updated December 10, 2003


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Memory (RAM)

RAM has always been the keys to better performance or servers. And Windows 2000 will chew through and use as much RAM as you can give it. Understanding the industry terminology, new developments, and how RAM works is important to making good purchasing decisions.
Where to Start

A Description of the 4 GB RAM Tuning Feature and the Physical Address Extension Switch
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 291988 - This article describes the 4 gigabyte (GB) random access memory (RAM) Tuning feature and the Physical Address Extension (PAE) switch.

Installing RAM
How to install new memory in your Computer, a step-by-step guide. Source:

Intel Physical Addressing Extensions (PAE) in Windows 2000
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 268363 - Microsoft Windows 2000 Advanced Server and Datacenter Server support memory in excess of 4 gigabytes (GB) of RAM by way of the Intel Physical Addressing Extension (PAE) specification. Windows 2000 Advanced Server is limited to 8 GB, and Windows 2000 Datacenter Server is limited to 64 GB. You can enable PAE in the Boot.ini file. 

Large Memory Support Is Available in Windows 2000 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 283037 -This article describes Physical Address Extension (PAE) and Address Windowing Extensions (AWE) and explains how they work together. This article also discusses the limitations of using memory beyond the 4 GB range that is inherent to 32-bit operating systems. 

Memory Packaging
The packaging is simply the entire makeup of a unit of memory, in most cases, the SIMM. Since the memory chips themselves are way too small, they must be combined and put on a medium that can be worked with and added to a system. Source:

Memory Parity Errors: Causes and Suggestions
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 101272 - This article discusses the extensive study in determining the causes of some NMI Memory Parity Errors in Windows NT with the aid of a high tech SIMM tester. The results are not conclusive and the research into this is ongoing. 

Memory Types
Explanations of the different technologies and types in memory today. Source:

Tom's RAM Guide
The "Everything you ever wanted to know about RAM" Guide that you've always been looking for.

SDRAM Considerations
As mentioned before, SDRAM is the new developing standard. But, in buying SDRAM for you system, there is some information you must consider. Source:

Troubleshooting: Known Bugs and Issues

Cache Manager and Memory Manager Become Deadlocked When Both Flush an Extended Attribute Stream
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article  Q304093 - When an extended attribute stream is flushed, the Cache Manager and the Memory Manager may become deadlocked and may stop responding if they try to flush the stream at the same time

Error Message: Memory Could Not Be Read... 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 262490 - When you log on to the local console of your Windows 2000-based computer, you may receive the following error message:

Event ID 49 Is Logged After Adding Random Access Memory
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 226448 - When you add random access memory (RAM) to a computer that is configured to create a crash dump (Memory.dmp) file, the size of the Pagefile.sys file does not automatically increase to accommodate the Memory.dmp file. 

FIX: "Limited Virtual Memory" Error Message When You Start Your Computer 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 257758 - When you set the paging file (Pagefile.sys - on your computer to a size that is lower than the recommended size of 12 megabytes (MB - plus the amount of random access memory (RAM -, a temporary paging file (Temppf.sys - may be created, and you
may receive the following error message after you log on: Limited Virtual Memory Your system is running without a properly sized paging file. Please use the virtual memory option of the System applet in the Control Panel to create a paging file, or to increase the initial size of your paging file.  

Running Out of Memory Can Cause Loss of Cryptographic Keys (Machine GUID - 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 252325 - Running out of memory can cause the system to regenerate the cryptographic keys. These keys are associated with the computer's Globally Unique Identifiers (GUID - in the registry; the changed GUID becomes inaccessible to any other servers, services, or programs. 

Windows 2000 Datacenter Server Does Not Locate Memory Greater Than 16 GB 
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 292934 - When you start Windows 2000 Datacenter Server, you may not observe any memory greater than 16 GB in size even though you have more memory in the server.

Windows NT Only Recognizes up to 64 MB RAM on Some Computers
Microsoft Knowledge Base Article: 117373 - Windows NT detects up to 4 gigabytes (GB) of RAM, but if you are using a computer with more than 64 megabytes (MB) of RAM, Windows NT may detect only up to 64 MB. This behavior is based on how the BIOS returns the amount of memory to Windows NT. 

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